Local Highway Improvements (LHI)’s are delivered by the County Council on a joint funded basis and applicants can apply for funding of up to either £25,000 for complex projects or £10,000 for non-complex projects, as a contribution to their scheme. The applicant is expected to provide a minimum contribution of 10% towards the total scheme cost.
 
Better cycle infrastructure will help cyclists feel safer on the road, and may encourage more people to cycle. Increased cycling will reduce air pollution and motor vehicle congestion if people switch from using their cars. Cycling provides a big health benefit to those people who do not already exercise regularly.

Increased cycling uptake has a number of advantages. Compared to driving, cycling has a profound health benefit on the cyclist. There are benefits for wider Cambridgeshire too, which will experience less air pollution and congestion as a result of fewer cars, and increased cyclists. Cycle infrastructure increases the uptake of cycling. This is because cyclists feel safer, and feel more welcome on the road. The benefits of cycling far outweigh the risks to the cyclist.

Cycle lanes (Non-complex)

Cycle lanes are designated road space for cyclists. The lanes are marked on the road with white paint, and a symbol of a bicycle is often spaced along the lane. Sometimes cycle lanes are painted red to make them more visible to drivers, but this could make the street look cluttered.

If a cycle lane has a broken dotted line (an advisory cycle lane), this means motor vehicles are only allowed to enter the lane if it is safe to do so. If the cycle lane has a solid white line (a mandatory cycle lane), motor vehicles are not allowed to enter the lane at any time except to pick up or set down passengers or in case of emergency. Motor vehicles are only permitted to park in advisory cycle lanes if it is unavoidable, and there are no parking restrictions.

Effectiveness

There's very little information about the safety effects of cycle lanes. Designating road space to cyclists does not necessarily prevent cyclist accidents.

Advantages of cycle lanes

  • Designated road space for cyclists which motor vehicles should not enter
  • Allow cyclists to overtake on the inside of vehicular traffic
  • Low cost
  • May remind motorists that cyclists could be present
  • Perceived width of the carriageway is narrowed, which may reduce motorised vehicle speeds
  • May give cyclists more confidence to use the road. This provides many benefits, including:
    • Improving health of those choosing to cycle
    • Reducing motor vehicle congestion
    • Reducing pollution from motor vehicles

Disadvantages of cycle lanes

  • May cause cyclists to be less cautious about motor vehicles
  • Less road space is available for other users
  • Can increase conflict between drivers and cyclists

Restrictions

  • Cycle lanes cannot be installed on a road where car parking is permitted (unless car parking spaces are designated)
  • The road space must be able to accommodate a 3 metre motor vehicle lane, and at least 1.5 - 2 metres for the cycle lane
  • This scheme requires a Traffic Regulation Order and a Road Safety Audit

Cost of installation

  • £6,500

Please note that costs are for 20 metres of advisory cycle lane with cycle symbols. Costs vary depending on location of works and are for lining and signing only (no red surfacing).

Cycleways (Complex)

Segregated cycleway and footway through field
Segregated cycleway and footway

There are two distinct types of cycleway that are predominantly used in Cambridgeshire, they are shared use and segregated cycleway/footways.

Shared use is where pedestrians and cyclists use a wide path or footway together. This could be by the side of a road, or through a park or plaza. Cyclists are not allowed to cycle on a footway unless it has been designated as shared use.

Segregated space allocates a section of the footway for cycle use only. Some physical segregations can be used but generally a raised white line is installed to delineate the footway and cycleway. The lanes will normally have bicycle or pedestrian symbols installed and 'Give Way' symbols are often used when the lanes finish or come to a junction. The pedestrian section is still classed as footway and cyclists are not permitted to ride in it.

Effectiveness

It may seem obvious that removing cyclists from motor vehicle traffic will increase safety, however there can be complacency when cyclists move out of the shared use area, this could result in an increase in accidents. This effect could potentially cancel-out any improved safety cyclists experience whilst within the shared area.

For many people, they will only consider cycling regularly if there is segregation from motor vehicle traffic. Shared use footways/cycleways are far more likely than on-road cycle lanes to encourage people to cycle, especially younger people.

If more people are cycling rather than driving, this reduces pollution, reduces traffic congestion, and has a profound health benefit on the individual. The benefits of cycling to the individual far outweigh any possible risks from road safety.

Turning a footway into shared use facility can be very easy to do, because it only requires signage on the footway (to show pedestrians and cyclists can use the space), along with some legal and consultation work.

It is important to remember that cyclists can be travelling considerably faster than pedestrians, so there must be enough space on the path for cyclists to pass pedestrians. If there’s a high volume of pedestrians and cyclists using a relatively small path, cyclists are likely to become frustrated. Similarly, pedestrians may find cyclists pass them too closely, which could cause concern and discomfort.

Advantages of cycleways

  • Allows cyclists and motor vehicles to travel without having to avoid each other
  • Cyclists feel safer when they are not sharing the road with motor vehicles
  • Offers better safety protection to cyclists compared to on-road cycle lanes
  • May encourage people to switch from using their car to cycling instead. This provides many benefits, including:
    • Improving health of those choosing to cycle
    • Reducing motor vehicle congestion
    • Reducing pollution from motor vehicles

Disadvantages of cycleways

  • Costs considerably more than on road cycle lanes
  • Only possible where there is enough space
  • May leave less road space for motor vehicles and parking
  • Can be a potential for conflict with pedestrians
  • Can be a potential conflict with vehicles using their accesses

Restrictions

  • The road space must be able to accommodate a 3-4 metre motor vehicle lane, and at least 2.5 - 3 metres for a shared use footway / cycleway
  • Requires a Traffic Regulation Order and Road Safety Audit

Cost of installation

  • £55,000

On street cycleway based on 20m length of new designated cycle lane, installed under two-way lights.

The cycleway cost is based on new construction of a 3.5m wide and 50m long path in an existing verge, installed under two-way lights. There is no provision for drainage or street lighting.

Solar studs (Non-complex)

solar studs
Solar studs

Solar studs are used for wayfinding on active travel routes where street lighting is unavailable. White solar studs are installed at regular intervals of no more than 18 metres at the front and rear of the path. This distance reduces on the approach to a crossing.

Effectiveness

An excellent solution for wayfinding in low light rural areas where street lighting isn’t available. They are often installed in conjunction with shared use paths and help denote the front and rear edges of a route for users.

Advantages of solar studs

  • Relatively cheap.
  • Nationally recognised and understood.
  • No discomfort experienced by any highway user.

Disadvantages of solar studs

  • Effectiveness can be diminished over time if not replaced as part of a regular maintenance regime.
  • Cost increases when additional works are required to repair the underlying surface first.

Cost of installation

  • White solar studs – Please contact officers to discuss this further.

Provision may also need to be made for delivering the work under a road closure, repairing the underlying surface or removal of any existing roadmarkings in advance.

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